Ningxia, officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is a landlocked autonomous region in the northwest of the People’s Republic of China. Formerly a province, Ningxia was incorporated into Gansu in 1954 but was separated from Gansu in 1958 and was reconstituted as an autonomous region for the Hui people, one of the 56 officially recognized nationalities of China. Twenty percent of China’s Hui population lives in Ningxia.
Ningxia is bounded by Shaanxi to the east, Gansu to the south and west, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to the north and has an area of around 66,400 square kilometers (25,600 sq mi). This sparsely settled, mostly desert region lies partially on the Loess Plateau and in the Yellow River’s vast plain and features the Great Wall of China along its northeastern boundary. Over about 2000, years an extensive system of canals (The total length about 1397 kilometers) has been built from the Qin dynasty. Extensive land reclamation and irrigation projects have made increased cultivation possible.
Ningxia was the core area of the Western Xia dynasty in the 11th-13th century, established by the Tangut people. The Tanguts made significant literature, art, music, and architecture achievements, particularly invented Tangut script. In August 1227, during the course of the Mongol conquest of Western Xia, Genghis Khan died from an uncertain cause.