Nanjing, alternatively romanized as Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People’s Republic of China and the second-largest city in the East China region. With 11 districts, Nanjing has an administrative area of 6,600 km2 (2,500 sq mi) and a total population of 8,505,500 as of 2019.
Situated in the Yangtze River Delta region, Nanjing has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms, and republican governments dating from the 3rd century to 1949, and has thus long been a major center of culture, education, research, politics, economy, transport networks, and tourism, being the home to one of the world’s largest inland ports.
Nanjing, one of the nation’s most important cities for over a thousand years, is recognized as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. It has been one of the world’s largest cities, enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters. The Ming dynasty when, for the first time, all of China was ruled from the city (1368–1421); and the Republic of China under the nationalist Kuomintang (1927–37, 1946–49) before its flight to Taiwan by Chiang Kai-shek during the Chinese Civil War. The city also served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1853–64) and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei (1940–45) during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It suffered severe atrocities in both conflicts, such as the Nanjing massacre.
Nanjing has served as the capital city of Jiangsu province since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. It has many important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. Nanjing is famous for human historical landscapes, mountains, and waters such as Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake, and Purple Mountain. Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Library, Nanjing Museum, and Jiangsu Art Museum.