Jiangxi is a landlocked province in the east of the People’s Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Nanchang. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest.
After the fall of the Qing dynasty, Jiangxi became one of the earliest bases for the Communists, and many peasants were recruited to join the growing people’s revolution. The Nanchang Uprising took place in Jiangxi on August 1, 1927, during the Chinese Civil War. Later the Communist leadership hid in the mountains of southern and western Jiangxi, hiding from the Kuomintang’s attempts to eradicate them. In 1931, the Chinese Soviet Republic’s government was established in Ruijin, which is sometimes called the “Former Red Capital”, or just the “Red Capital”. In 1935, after complete encirclement by the Nationalist forces, the Communists broke through and began the Long March to Yan’an.
The southern half of Jiangxi is hilly and mountainous, with ranges and valleys interspersed; notable mountains and mountain ranges include Mount Lu, the Jinggang Mountains, and Mount Sanqing. The northern half is comparatively lower in altitude. The Gan River flows through the province.